|UpIn reference to the direction of travel means towards the major terminus (i.e. towards Kidderminster on the present day SVR) (towards Kidderminster)||DownIn reference to the direction of travel means away from the major terminus (i.e. towards Bridgnorth on the present day SVR) (towards Shrewsbury)|
| Hampton Loade (4½ miles)
| Present day: line terminates.|
Pre closure: Linley
- 1 The station
- 2 Facilities
- 3 Bridgnorth Development Project
- 4 Points of interest
- 5 Exhibitions
- 6 Bridgnorth history before preservation
- 7 Historic maps of Bridgnorth Station
- 8 Gallery
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Links
Bridgnorth is the current Northern terminus of the SVRSevern Valley Railway. It has two platforms connected by a footbridge, a yard, and a signal box. The original Severn Valley Railway continued northwards towards Ironbridge through a 550 yard long tunnel underneath Bridgnorth High Town. From time to time the possibility of re-opening the section of the line north of Bridgnorth is raised on discussion forums and elsewhere. The official stance of the SVRSevern Valley Railway varies somewhat confusingly between "maintaining a watching brief" and "the railway land north of Bridgnorth has been long since sold, and there is now no possibility of Severn Valley trains reaching Ironbridge and Shrewsbury ever again".
The main station building is listed Grade II by Historic England for its special architectural or historic interest. 
The yard at Bridgnorth is home to the Loco Works. Bridgnorth MPD (Motive Power Department) is the principal base for the Railway's steam locomotives. Bridgnorth is also home to two new build projects, BRBritish Rail or British Railways Class 3 locomotive 82045 and a replica of the Trevithick locomotive Catch Me Who Can.
Day to day restoration and maintenance is carried out by a group going by the name of 'The Wailing Wall Construction Company plc (pretty limited craftsmen)'.
Bridgnorth has two car parks. The entrance to the smaller coach/car park next to the station building is in Hollybush Road. This is pay and display and includes disabled parking spaces. The entrance to the larger 'West' car park is at the end of Station Lane off Hollybush Road, 100 yards to the north of the main station entrance. A ticket to exit this car park may be purchased from the Bridgnorth Station Shop or 'The Railwayman's Arms' pub.
Facilities for visitors include a buffet, a gift shop and 'The Railwayman’s Arms' pub. High Town, with its Castle Gardens and Cliff Railway, can be accessed from the SVRSevern Valley Railway via a footbridge outside the entrance to the Station building.
A lineside public viewing area is situated at the foot of Pan Pudding Hill, on the opposite side of the line from Platform 1. This can normally be accessed by taking the steps down from the car park near the Railwayman's Arms pub (the 'Donkey Gallops') and going through the Engine Shed Underpass. A flight of steps on the right then leads up to the viewing area. When access is allowed to the Bridgnorth Works (normally only during Gala events), access to the viewing area is possible direct from the south end of Platform 2.
Bridgnorth Development Project
The Bridgnorth site is the subject of a development project, the first phase of which saw the long-overdue removal of the Portacabin style Refreshment room (installed in 1979 "as a temporary measure"; previous buffet facilities having been in an old BR Mk 1 Tourist Second Open), and its replacement with a circa-1900 Great Western style single-storey building which is located to the south of the existing Jacobean style station building.
The 'Inchcape' siteOn 17 June 2014 David Postle attended an SVRSevern Valley Railway(H) Board meeting to propose the acquisition of the adjacent 'Inchcape' site at ‘no cost’ to the railway, leasing the site at a cost of £65,000 per annum for three years with an option to purchase at a price of £1,200,000. Together with colleagues he offered that the first three years' costs would be underwritten so that there would be no financial impact on the railway. The Board considered that the price was over-stated as advisors had indicated a market value of approximately £750,000.
Evolution of plans
Other phases should also see the refurbishment of the existing station building including the booking hall, shop and Railwayman's Arms, and the installation of a turntable. Subject to funding, a further phase will see construction of a new volunteer accommodation building. A summary of the evolution of plans is shown below.
|Project||2012 share offer||2016 share offer||September 2018||SVRSevern Valley Railway News 204 Winter 2018||Notes|
|New catering and toilets||Included||Phase I, reduced height and size||Phase I||Phase I||Opened January 2019. Non-uniformed staff catering from 2018 included in the Graham Hill building (next to the Boilershop)|
|Refurbished station||Included||Phase I||Phase III||Phase IV||In November 2016 work was continuing on detailed plans for the refurbishment of the existing station, with the contract for the remaining works of the first phase to be signed in January 2017. In September 2018 plans and costs were incomplete and "will inevitably take a period of time to reconcile". Works were not to begin before Winter 2019/20 to develop the plans, apply for funding and a period of calm. In October 2020 it required detailed plans to be drawn up before going for confirmed costings.|
|New car park in fields||Included||Phase II||Phase II||Phase II||Opened December 2018|
|Turntable||Included||Phase II||Phase IIb (TBC)||Phase III|
|Volunteer accommodation||Included, in plans for Hollybush Road sidings||Phase III*||Phase IV||Not included||*Funds for Phase III were not within the 2016 share offer of £2.5m.|
Intended as part of workshop and stores to rear of MPDMotive Power Depot, a storage block is now not urgently required. The SVRSevern Valley Railway will reconsider how best to provide volunteer accommodation, this is unlikely to commence until 2021 because of the current commitments on civils and building projects.
|Independent mobility across the site||Included, by means of additional lifts at the north end of the station||Not included||Not included||Not included|
|Public viewing area for MPDMotive Power Depot||Included||Not included||Not included||Not included|
|New visitor centre||Included||Not included||Not included||Not included|
Major milestones in the project have been as follows:
- October 2009: Plans for a refurbishment of the Bridgnorth station site began with the announcement of the Project Development Teams.
- October 2012: The SVRSevern Valley Railway launched a share offer to raise funds for various objectives, including developing the Bridgnorth Station site. Plans and illustrations of the proposed development were put on public display at Bridgnorth, attended by the steering group and architectural team to provide answers to questions and receive comments. Written comments submitted were published, over 100 in total, with "Overall, the feedback has been very positive with over 70% of people attending the exhibition being supportive, albeit with comments both practical and aesthetic as to how the proposals could be improved" (SVRSevern Valley Railway General Manager).
- March 2013: Following criticism of the initial plans, which some considered out of character with the existing station, the SVRSevern Valley Railway(H) Board resolved on 19 March to establish a Conservation and Heritage Committee under the Chairmanship of David Postle.
- September 2015: New plans and illustrations of the proposed development were put on public display in the booking office at Bridgnorth.
- January 2016: The planning application was submitted to Shropshire Council on 13 January.
- August 2016: The planning application was approved by the Council.
- November 2016:
- The SVRSevern Valley Railway launched a further share offer seeking to raise £2.5m towards the project. The share offer document confirmed that £1m from the 2012 share offer been spent or committed to the project, and that the additional £2.5m was required to meet the anticipated costs of completing Phase One (station buildings) and Phase Two (car parking and turntable). A third phase (new accommodation building) was not part of the share offer.
- Contractors arrived on site to begin work on the first phase, some preliminary work having already been carried out by SVRSevern Valley Railway staff and volunteers. Completion was initially expected to be in mid-2017.
- December 2016: Installation of all 63 piles completed.
- April 2017: Construction of the base for the new station building, originally targetted for January, was completed.
- May 2017: Bricklaying began at a ceremony on 3 May. A revised target date of October 2017 was imtimated for the new building.
- October 2017: It was announced the new facility would not provide for staff meals "across the whole service" as beforehand, due to the dimensions of the new buffet. A Working Group was set up to utilise instead the Engineering Services mess room for volunteer catering.
- October 2017: Proceeds from the share offer reached the target on the final day: it raised £2,548,595 gross, £2,427,348 net of costs. £807,000 was allocated from the 2012 share monies giving a net total of £3,234,348 for the project. Work continued on the building structure.
- March 2018: First phase work, much delayed, continued with the first roof slates being laid by the end of the month. A project team was working on the specification of the West side project, which includes the field car park, access roads and turntable. It was intended to tender for this phase during the summer of 2018.
- April 2018 roofing took place and the scaffolding was largely removed from the exterior of the building
- June 2018 In the rear service yard area, the “Bovey Tracey” outbuilding building had the framework erected and covered in breathable felt ready for the external corrugated cladding to be applied. This is based on a goods lock up that used to adorn Bovey Tracey station on the Moretonhampstead branch in Devon. The SVRSevern Valley Railway version serves as a plant room housing the heating boiler and food preparation area for the volunteer Severn Valley Venturer catering staff.
- July 2018 a completion and hand-over was forecast for the third week in July.. This was followed by a revised plan to open on 3 September. An announcement in September gave a date of end of 2018, with a formal opening in Spring 2019.
- October 2018 the former ‘overflow’ parking field was closed for contractors to construct a carefully surfaced, illuminated 200-space visitor West car park and access/egress routes. Walsh Construction successfully tendered for this work at a cost of £642,000. It opened in December 2018 with further works in the New Year. Barriers and parking charges came into use on 14 April 2019.
- December 2018 the contractors' site offices and associated buildings were removed from the station car park following the practical completion of the much delayed, as yet unopened, new station building. The toilets and (unfinished) new car park opened. On 19 December the planning application for the proposed relocation of the turntable was withdrawn.
- January 2019 the new Bridgnorth Refreshment Room opened daily during closed season. The official opening was 4 April.
- On 12 March 2019 the planning application for the proposed relocation of the turntable was resubmitted. Approval was granted on 30 April 2019.
SVRSevern Valley Railway(H) Annual Reports give the total capital sums spent on the Bridgnorth project to the end of 2019 as £3,202k comprising:
- 2015: £90k
- 2016: £243k
- 2017: £551k (all three years from the 2012 share issue)
- 2018: £1,693k (principally £1,188k refreshment room/toilet block and £493k new car park/access roads)
- 2019: £625k (final payments and retention monies for the refreshment room/toilet block and new car park/access roads)
In October 2019 the SVRSevern Valley Railway issued an update suggesting the next phase (the Bridgnorth Turntable pit, restoration of the Turntable, renewal of track work in Bridgnorth yard and the provision of a new loco pit) would be delayed until further quotes were obtained and plans developed. The full announcement may be read on SVRLive here. Previous updates on this project including pictures of the work in progress can be found on the SVRLive Bridgnorth Development page.A year later, the SVRSevern Valley Railway announced that there was £264,000 remaining share monies, which was ring-fenced for the remaining phase I of the project (the Bridgnorth station building conservation and extension of the bar). It required detailed plans to be drawn up before going for confirmed costings. Phase II of the project, which includes the turntable and renewal of track work in Bridgnorth yard along with the provision of a new loco pit, will follow, but there will be a need to raise further finance, once Phase I is completed.
Points of interest
Footbridge outside Bridgnorth Station
This view from Bridgnorth Station shows the footbridge connecting the station to New Road. It is sometimes referred to as the Hollybush Road footbridge, after the road which passes beneath it. The War Memorial in Bridgnorth High Town’s Castle Gardens can also be seen in this image.
The original footbridge at this location was built by Rubery Owen & Co. Ltd. in 1895 at a cost of £1400. Its condition was allowed to deteriorate following the closure of the railway at Bridgnorth in 1963, and by 1967 owners Bridgnorth Council had announced plans for its demolition. A Public Enquiry into the future of the footbridge was held on 1 April 1968, and a campaign to save the bridge was launched in 1969. The footbridge was closed and boarded up on 30 September 1970. In April 1974 Bridgnorth was demoted to rural borough status, losing its powers to spend money maintaining the footbridge. Later that year it was sold to the SVRSevern Valley Railway for a nominal £1, but was reluctantly deemed beyond repair and demolished in 1976. A short section was cosmetically restored by SVRSevern Valley Railway volunteers and placed as a feature on the roundabout at the junction of the A458 and A442 on the outskirts of Bridgnorth.  The 1895 bridge can also be seen in photographs 8 and 9 in the gallery of Sellick photographs below.
The new footbridge was built under the auspices of the Bridgnorth Footbridge Trust and opened on 22 July 1994. Ownership of the footbridge later transferred to Shropshire County Council.
In January 2018 the footbridge was closed due to the station end lifting: it appeared the bridge was under tension and the bolts at either end had corroded, and so the bridge had come adrift at each end. Shropshire County Council instigated a temporary repair before the start of the running season with permanent repairs to follow. The bridge was closed for 4 weeks in February 2020 for these repairs to be completed.
The south end of platform 1 originally ended by the water tower, as can be seen in the picture by David Cooke below and in photographs 8 and 9 in the gallery of Sellick photographs. A 200 ft extension was added by SVRSevern Valley Railway volunteers in 1981 using 30,000 bricks recovered from the ex-GWRGreat Western Railway goods shed at Cradley, coping stones from the former relief line platform at Acock’s Green, and fencing from Dunstall Park. At the same time contractors re-faced the original platform and raised the level at the south end. There is a noticeable change in the appearance of the platform at the junction of the old and new platforms, which can be seen in this photograph.In early 2016 volunteers completed a further extension of the platform at the north end. This enabled 9-coach trains such as those with an additional observation saloon to be fully 'on platform'. The work also included replacing the adjacent 'barrow crossing'.
The Railwayman's Arms
Bridgnorth Station building includes a licensed public bar, The Railwayman’s Arms. This remained open when the station was closed by BRBritish Rail or British Railways in September 1963 - the group of potential preservationists who visited Bridgnorth in July 1965 were challenged by George Thorpe who ran it at the time.
The bar and cellar were extended in 1979, the contract for the work being awarded to the building contractors in February of that year.
The pub sign on the platform features paintings by John AustinJohn Austin GRA, renowned Bridgnorth-based member of The Guild of Railway Artists of Ivatt ‘Mickey Mouse’ 46443 and GWR 7802 Bradley Manor.
In February 2017 it won the CAMRA Bridgnorth Pub Of The Year Award 2017.
Hanbury Cottage forms a distinctive backdrop to Bridgnorth MPDMotive Power Depot. The cottage, together with a half-acre of land, was bought by the SVRSevern Valley Railway for £165,000 in May 2007 after it fell vacant.. By 2009 it had been converted into the MPDMotive Power Depot crew room with DSM and Inspector's offices, plus a small kitchen and a pattern store.. The 1884 OS Map below refers to the property as 'Ambrose Cottage'.
Pan Pudding Hill
Pan Pudding Hill, or sometimes Panpudding Hill or Pampudding Hill, is a scheduled ancient monument which overlooks Bridgnorth station. The man-made hill was built in 1102, on the orders of King Henry I, as a siege earthwork to attack and capture Bridgnorth Castle. The distance from the hill to the castle, nearly 300 yards, is a testament to the power of mediaeval siege catapults.
Pan Pudding Hill was used to attack Bridgnorth Castle on other occasions, and finally in 1646 by Cromwell’s Parliamentarians during the English Civil War. After the last attack Bridgnorth Castle was blown up, leaving only the remains of the keep which can be seen in the castle grounds in High Town.In 2000 the TV series 'Time Team' visited Bridgnorth to investigate the area around St Mary’s Church. Part of the dig concentrated on Pan Pudding Hill – then in the ownership of The Apley Estate. The episode is available on YouTube. In October 2015 the SVRSevern Valley Railway purchased ten acres of land to the west of Bridgnorth Station from The Apley Estate Trustees, which includes Pan Pudding Hill.
Locomotive watering facilities
BRBritish Rail or British Railways had already demolished the water tank on Pan Pudding Hill and the watering columns on platforms 1 and 2 before the fledgling SVRSevern Valley Railway Society made contact in July 1965 asking them to stop demolition works while negotiations to buy the line took place. The SVRSevern Valley Railway Society acquired replacement ‘rail level’ water columns from nearby Stourbridge MPDMotive Power Depot, and a replacement water tank from Henley in Arden, the latter arriving in August 1970. These were installed during the following year – until they were commissioned locomotives were watered at Eardington where possible, or otherwise from a simple hosepipe connected to a nearby tap at Bridgnorth.
In October 1972, the platform water columns from Henley were obtained with a view to replace those previously obtained from Stourbridge. During winter maintenance shut down in January 2020 Cowans Sheldon 30-ton steam crane RS 1087 lifted the constituent parts of the Platform 2 water column to deal with an internal leak and to replace a bearing at its base.
In 1980 Severn Trent Water re-connected the local water supply to a bore hole which supplied water with a very high level of dissolved salts. The water softening plant was unable to cope with this, resulting in boilers scaling and locomotives 'priming' within 3 days of a washout. The following year, to resolve the issue, the SVRSevern Valley Railway laid a water main to Bridgnorth from Knowlesands, the nearest source of softer water.
All locomotives must be weighed before first use on the SVRSevern Valley Railway to ensure they comply with axle weight limits. Individual wheels are also weighed to check for correct weight distribution after replacement of springs. A locomotive is moved slowly over a section of strain gauged track adjacent to platform 1 at Bridgnorth with the results displayed on a screen in the signal box.
- From 16 June 2012 an exhibition was mounted for the Victorian weekend and following station festival in Platform 2 waiting room, with a history of the station.
- On 24 June 2018 a Catch Me Who Can sculpture was unveiled as a part of the Bridgnorth Art Trail. The sculpture was one of twelve positioned around the town. They were aluminium castings that represent the locomotive in a much simplified form and were used as the ground for competition winning individual artists and groups to decorate. Statue 2: 'Just the Ticket' was positioned outside Bridgnorth station booking office and was designed by Tania Holland of Tania Holland Gallery using archive material provided by the SVRSevern Valley Railway. It was also sponsored by the SVRSevern Valley Railway.
- From 16 to 30 August 2019 Kathryn O’Connor, a black and white photographic documentary artist, ran an exhibition in the then-new Bridgnorth Refreshment Room as part of the Bridgnorth Music & Arts Festival. It comprised a selection of individual people then working in Bridgnorth, in as many diverse workplaces as possible, and short work history questionnaires they had completed.
In 2004 a Bridgnorth postmark was used in conjunction with Royal Mail's Classic Locomotives stamp issue, which featured the SVRSevern Valley Railway's Bradley Manor.
Bridgnorth history before preservation
- 1849 A goods conveyancing service by road to Wolverhampton Railway Station is advertised by a local carrier in partnership with the Grand Junction Railway.
- 1856 A passenger and parcels service by road to Shifnal Railway Station is advertised by the GWRGreat Western Railway.
- 1862: When the original Severn Valley Railway opened, Bridgnorth Station is the principal intermediate station and crossing point between Hartlebury and Shrewsbury. The station building is made of stone in a Jacobean architectural style.
- 1887: The down platform is extended, a passenger shelter is erected, and a cast-iron and wrought-iron lattice footbridge is built to connect it to the up platform.
- 1887: The Town Corporation pays for a new approach road to the station.
- 1892: Two fully interlocked signalboxes open at the north and south ends of the station, replaced in 1923 by a single central box on the up platform.
- 1895: The Town Corporation pays for a lattice footbridge to shorten the route from High Town to the railway, at a cost of £1,400.
- 1922: Knowlesands Brick Works sidings open, with ground frames at either end of the loop, capable of accommodating 35 standard wagons plus engine and brake van.
- 1922: GWR staff records for 1922 show the station had a staff of 19.
- 1956: GWR Diesel Railcar W10W was burnt out in a fire while standing at Platform 1.
- 1962: Bridgnorth Town Council objects to BRBritish Rail or British Railways's proposals to withdraw passenger trains between Shrewsbury and Bewdley, believing the line could be promoted as a holiday attraction.
- 1963: Official notice is given of the withdrawal of passenger services north of Bewdley, to be effective from 9 September 1963. Freight and parcels will continue until the end of the year, after which time only coal traffic from the south to and from Alveley Colliery will use the line. The last BRBritish Rail or British Railways passenger service to run into Bridgnorth from the south is on 8 September 1963, double headed by ex-GWRGreat Western Railway 0-6-0 Pannier Tanks Nos 9624 and 4665.
|Passenger Traffic||Freight Traffic|
|Year||Tickets issued||Parcels despatched||Revenue (£)||Tons received & despatched||Revenue (£)||Total revenue (£)|
Historic maps of Bridgnorth Station
- GWRGreat Western Railway plan of Bridgnorth with the original track plan in blue and later amendments in red.
- 1884 map showing the station with no footbridges.
- 1903 map showing the footbridges
- 1927 map showing the bus garage at the south end of the station site and the signal box to the north of the station building.
1) Ex-GWRGreat Western Railway Small PrairieLocomotive with a 2-6-2 wheel configuration 5538 calls at Bridgnorth in April 1957 (Sellick Collection)
2) A steam-hauled service and an ex-GWRGreat Western Railway Diesel Railcar pass at Bridgnorth in August 1962 (Sellick Collection)
3) An ex-GWRGreat Western Railway Diesel Railcar passes a Northbound train at Bridgnorth in September 1962 (Sellick Collection)
4) The pre-preservation signal box and a Northbound train in September 1962 (Sellick Collection)
5) Ex-LMSLondon Midland & Scottish Railway IvattHenry George Ivatt, Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway 1946-1948. CME of BR (London Midland Region) 1948-1951 Tank 41202 passes a BRBritish Rail or British Railways DMUDiesel Multiple Unit at Bridgnorth in October 1962 (Sellick Collection)
8) Ex-GWRGreat Western Railway Pannier 3619 takes water at Bridgnorth in January 1963 (Sellick Collection)
9) A view of the station and high town from Pan Pudding Hill in January 1963 (Sellick Collection)
10) An ex-LMSLondon Midland & Scottish Railway locomotive calls at Bridgnorth on 31 July 1963, shortly before the closure of the line (Sellick Collection)
11) GWRGreat Western Railway Panniers 9624 and 4665 prepare to depart Bridgnorth with the last BRBritish Rail or British Railways train on 8 September 1963 (Sellick Collection)
- List of stations
- Bridgnorth MPD
- Bridgnorth Loco Works
- Bridgnorth Turntable
- GWR Bus Garage (Ex Bridgnorth)
- List of Rolling stock at Bridgnorth
- Shropshire Historic Environment Record
- Bridgnorth Station on the Historic England list
- SVRSevern Valley Railway News 51
- General Manager's Statement 23 June 2014
- NBINotice Board Issue. The SVR's on-line method of circulating information to working members. September 2018
- SVRSevern Valley Railway Live
- NBINotice Board Issue. The SVR's on-line method of circulating information to working members. September 2018
- Branch Lines, October 2020
- Express Points May 2019
- SVRSevern Valley Railway News 167, General Manager's Notes
- SVRA forum thread (Retrieved 12 June 2017)
- Announcement by Nick Ralls (General Manager), reported on SVR-OnLine forum
- SVR Forum
- SVR Website news item
- 2016 Share Offer Document pp. 16-19.
- SVRSevern Valley Railway NBINotice Board Issue. The SVR's on-line method of circulating information to working members. March 2018
- SVRSevern Valley Railway News 201, p. 15
- SVRSevern Valley Railway Forum, September 2018
- SVRSevern Valley Railway News 205
- Shropshire Council 18/05183/FUL | Construction of locomotive turntable reclaimed from Bath Road Bristol and associated enabling works (Retrieved 31 December 2018)
- Railwayman's Arms Facebook 26 January 2019
- 'SVR Shareholder Event 2019', SVRLive, 22 February 2019 (Retrieved 23 February 2019)
- Shropshire Planning Ref:19/01151/FUL
- Kelly's Directory of Shropshire, 1913
- SVRSevern Valley Railway News 19
- Marshall (1989) p. 105.
- Section of footbridge visible on Google Street View
- Shropshire County Council 19 January 2018 (Retrieved 20 January 2018)
- SVRSevern Valley Railway News 60
- Bridgnorth Station 'platform 1 north extension' Retrieved 14 February 2017
- SVRSevern Valley Railway News 194
- SVRSevern Valley Railway News 51
- SVRSevern Valley Railway News 158, Boardroom Notes
- SVRSevern Valley Railway News 168
- Pampudding Hill on www.bridgnorthtowncouncil.gov.uk
- Pan Pudding Hill on the Historic England Scheduled Monument list
- shropshirehistory.org.uk Retrieved 26 May 2015
- Internet Movie Database, Time Team, Series 8, episode 11, first broadcast 11 March 2001 (Retrieved 29 December 2020)
- The Apley Estate Retrieved 5 October 2017
- SVRLive 'Purchase of 10 acres of land to the West of Bridgnorth Station' 5 October 2015 (Retrieved 14 February 2017)
- SVRSevern Valley Railway News 57
- SVR Forum
- Bridgnorth Arts Trail (Retrieved 10 July 2019)
- SVRSevern Valley Railway website
- Handbook to the Severn Valley Railway, J. Randall, 1863
- "Bridgnorth (Parish): Key Figures for 2011 Census". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics (Retrieved 23 November 2015)
- Information from the Bridgnorth Station website
- Nabarro (1971) p. 55.